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ChatGPT and AI Resources for Faculty

Resources and reading list addressing ChatGPT and other AI in the classroom.

How to Cite Artificial Intelligence

There are currently no definitive guidelines for citing ChatGPT or other generative AI sources in most referencing styles. Since content generated by AI is nonrecoverable and cannot be retrieved or linked, it is recommended to use the reference style for personal communication or correspondence when citing such content.  This may vary depending on the referencing style needed.


APA 7th

Based on the APA Style Guide, How to cite ChatGPT

Example Citation:

OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model].

  • Parenthetical citation: (OpenAI, 2023)
  • Narrative citation: OpenAI (2023)


Each part of APA citation explained:

Author: The author of the model is OpenAI.

Date: The date is the year of the version you used. 

Title: The name of the model is “ChatGPT,” so that serves as the title and is italicized in your reference, as shown in the template. Although OpenAI labels unique iterations (i.e., ChatGPT-3, ChatGPT-4), they are using “ChatGPT” as the general name of the model, with updates identified with version numbers.

Version Number: The version number is included after the title in parentheses. The format for the version number in ChatGPT references includes the date because that is how OpenAI is labeling the versions.

Bracketed Text: In the case of a reference for ChatGPT, provide the descriptor “Large language model” in square brackets.

Source: When the publisher name and the author name are the same, do not repeat the publisher name in the source element of the reference, and move directly to the URL.



Using the MLA Template from How do I cite generative AI in MLA style?

Works Cited Format:
"Description of chat" prompt. Name of AI tool, version of AI tool, Company, Date of chat, URL.

“Title of source” prompt. Name of AI Tool, version, Company, Date content was generated, General web address of tool. 

Each part of MLA citation explained:

Author: Not recommended to treat the AI tool as an author. 

Title of Source: Describe what was generated by the AI tool. This may involve including information about the prompt in the Title of Source element if you have not done so in the text. 

Title of Container: Use the Title of Container element to name the AI tool (e.g., ChatGPT).

Version: Name the version of the AI tool as specifically as possible, usually including a specific date to the version.

Publisher: Name the company that made the tool.

Date: Give the date the content was generated.

Location: Give the general URL for the tool.



From the Chicago Manual of Style Online Q&A on citing AI

You must credit ChatGPT when you reproduce its words within your own work, but unless you include a publicly available URL, that information should be put in the text or in a note—not in a bibliography or reference list. 

Formal Citation Example of a numbered footnote or endnote
1. Text generated by ChatGPT, OpenAI, March 7, 2023,

If the prompt hasn’t been included in the text, it can be included in the note:

1. ChatGPT, response to “Explain how to make pizza dough from common household ingredients,” OpenAI, March 7, 2023.

Unpublished interviews and personal communications (conversations, emails, letters, etc.) are generally cited in a footnote only; they are rarely included in the Bibliography. 
General Format 
Full Note: 
1. Intervieweer First Name/Initial Surname, interview with to First Name Surname, Date of Interview.
Online chat with Chat GPT (AI) March 2, 2023.
Typically no bibliography entry required.



There is no official guidance on citing AI, but we recommend following the guidelines for personal communication.

The text of your document must include:

  • Type of communication
  • Communicator
  • Date in this format (Day Month Year)

In an online chat with OpenAI's ChatGPT AI language model (2 March 2023)

For more information on Vancouver Style, please refer to the chapter 13, Letters and Other Personal Communication, in The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition.