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Nurses' guide to evidence-based practice

Basics on EBP concepts and resources at LLUH with a focus on the first three steps, ASK, ACQUIRE, and APPRAISE.


Step 1: Ask

Focus the question so that it is answerable, determines the objective of the literature search, and informs the tools used for appraisal.  Questions can generally be structured in terms of a relationship among the patient (P), an intervention (I), sometimes a comparison intervention (C), and one or more specific outcomes of interest (O).

Flemming K. Asking answerable questions [editorial].Evidence-Based Nursing 1998 Apr;1:36-7.

Richardson W, et al. The well-built clinical question: a key to evidence-based decisions.
ACP Journal Club 1995 Nov- Dec;123(3):A12-3.

Forming a focused question thru PICO / UNC Health Sciences Library guide

Shaneyfelt, T. (2012, September 30).  Developing answerable clinical questions [Video File].  Retrieved from

Step 2: Acquire

Acquiring information / ANA Nursing World

Databases and resources / ANA Toolkit
Tutorials on database searching / PubMed Basics /  ANA


Step 4: Apply

A Model for Applying Evidence to Nursing Practice / by Jeanne Grace, RN, PhD1
J Nurs Sci Vol 30 No 2 April - June 2012
Implementing Evidence-based nursing: some misconceptions (BMJ)

Step 5: Assess