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Copyright Guide

This guide provides resources for students, researchers, staff, and faculty on copyright law, policies, and guidelines at Loma Linda University.

Copyright Policy from the Faculty Handbook

This page contains an excerpt from the Faculty Handbook policy 3.11.0:  Copying and off-air recording policy.  Faculty should consult the complete policy for more detailed information.  Here is an outline of what is covered in policy 3.11..0:

3.11.0 Copying and off-air recording

3.11.1 What is the scope of copyright coverage?

3.11.2 Permissible uses of copyrighted or other material

3.11.3 Copying for classroom and research use

3.11.4 Off-air taping of broadcasts

3.11.5 Copying and use of computer programs

3.11.6 Penalties for copyright violations are severe

3.11.7 Library reserve guidelines

Copying for Classroom and Research Use

Copying of copyrighted materials for student learning and research use without written permission may occur in the following instances:

Single copying for teachers

Single copies may be made of any of the following by or for teachers at their individual request for scholarly research or use in teaching or preparation to teach a class:

  • One chapter from a book;
  • An article from a periodical, journal, or newspaper;
  • A short story, short essay, or short poem, whether or not from a collective work;
  • A chart, graph, diagram, drawing, cartoon, or picture from a book, periodical, or newspaper.

Multiple copies for student learning use

Multiple copies (not to exceed in any event more than one copy per pupil in a course) may be made by or for the teacher giving the course for student learning use or discussion; provided that the following three criteria are met:

  • The copying meets the tests of brevity and spontaneity.
  • The copying meets the cumulative effect test.
  • Each copy includes a notice of copyright. An example is "this material may be protected by Copyright law (title 17, US Code)."


Brevity : (a)Prose: (1) Either a complete article, story or essay of less than 2,500 words, (usually varies 3-8 pages depending on size of page and type) or (2) an excerpt from any prose work of not more than 1,000 words or 10 percent of the work, whichever is greater.

(b) Illustration: One chart, graph, diagram, drawing, cartoon, or picture per book or per article issue. 

(c) Poetry: (1) A complete poem if less than 250 words and if printed on not more than two pages or, (2) from a longer poem, an excerpt of not more than 250 words.

Spontaneity : The copying is at the instance and inspiration of the individual teacher, and the inspiration and decision to use the work.The moment of its use for maximum teaching effectiveness are so close in time that it would be unreasonable to expect a timely reply to a request for permission.

Cumulative effect : Copying of the material is for only one course in the school in which the copies are made.

Not more than one short poem, article, story, essay, or two excerpts may be copied from the same author, not more than three from the same collective work or more than three from the same collective work or periodical volume during one class term.

There shall not be more than nine instances of such multiple copying for one course during one class term.